How to Set Up Core Data and CloudKit When You Haven’t the Faintest Clue What You’re Doing

Note: This was posted before WWDC 2021, so if major changes were made to Core Data + CloudKit, they aren’t reflected here. This right here is just pure dumpster fire all the way down. Also if you’re an Apple engineer…I’m sorry.

When Apple introduced changes to Core Data + CloudKit integration in 2019, they sold developers on a dead-simple API: add iCloud sync to your Core Data app with “as little as one line of code.” That one line, of course, is simply changing NSPersistentContainer to NSPersistentCloudKitContainer and enabling a few capabilities in the project settings. Boom, done! And in fact, Apple’s “Core Data –> Host in CloudKit” SwiftUI project template does those things for you, so you’re good to go, right?

Turns out, if you want to sync Core Data-backed data between devices and have those changes reflected in your UI in a timely manner, you have some more work to do. To figure out what that work is, you can’t look at Apple’s Core Data templates. You have to look at their sample code.

My SwiftUI app was created before Apple even added a SwiftUI + Core Data project template, so I created a class called “CoreDataStack” that has a shared instance. If you use the template, that becomes a struct called “PersistenceController.” I’m sure the struct is SwiftUI-ier, but the class from Apple’s sample code (which does not use SwiftUI) makes more sense to my brain, so I went with that.

Step 1: Make your container lazy and set some important options

In Apple’s sample code, you’ll notice that within the persistent container’s lazy initialization, two options are set on the container’s description. Include these.

guard let description = container.persistentStoreDescriptions.first else {
        fatalError("###\(#function): Failed to retrieve a persistent store description.")
    description.setOption(true as NSNumber, forKey: NSPersistentHistoryTrackingKey)
    description.setOption(true as NSNumber, forKey: NSPersistentStoreRemoteChangeNotificationPostOptionKey)

If you don’t set the first option, you’ll regret it. Look, I don’t even really understand what it does, I just know that somewhere down the line, you’ll find some dumb way to break sync and then when you finally get it working again, you’ll find that only managed objects created after this key was set will sync properly. Every object created before the NSPersistentHistoryTrackingKey was set will stubbornly refused to sync unless you modify it and re-save it, which is a giant pain in the derrière. I mean, at least that’s what my…uh…friend told me.

The second option is the first step toward receiving notifications when magic cloud stuff happens. You’ll subscribe to that NSPersistentStoreRemoteChangeNotification later, but for now, just make sure that option is set.

Step 2: Stir in some of this stuff that I have a super weak grasp of

After your container loads its persistent stores, but before you return the container itself, these lines are also important:

container.viewContext.mergePolicy = NSMergeByPropertyObjectTrumpMergePolicy
    container.viewContext.transactionAuthor = appTransactionAuthorName
       container.viewContext.automaticallyMergesChangesFromParent = true
    do {
        try container.viewContext.setQueryGenerationFrom(.current)
    } catch {
        assertionFailure("###\(#function): Failed to pin viewContext to the current generation:\(error)")

There are several merge policies, and you can read about them in the docs.

Again, I barely understand this stuff. For my purposes, I set “appTransactionAuthorName” to the name of my app’s container, which was simply “YarnBuddy.” From what I kinda understand, setting the transaction author here allows me to later filter for changes that weren’t created by my app on this particular device and act on them.

Now, I’ve always had “automaticallyMergesChangesFromParent” set to true, but what I didn’t realize is that it doesn’t just refresh your view hierarchy immediately when a change occurs. Maybe it should, but for me, it doesn’t. That’s where the remote change notification comes in.

Step 3: Dip your toes into Combine for a hot second and subscribe to notifications

I put this code right before “return container.”

      .publisher(for: .NSPersistentStoreRemoteChange)
      .sink {
      .store(in: &subscriptions)

And somewhere within the class I have declared this variable:

private var subscriptions: Set<AnyCancellable> = []

Make sure you import Combine at the top. I know extremely little about Combine at this point. It’s number one on my list of things to learn, and I plan to start with John Sundell’s “Discover Combine” materials.

We’ll get into what my “processRemoteStoreChange” function does in a minute.

Step 4: Just copy over these blessed code snippets from the sample code

Copy the following from CoreDataStack.swift in Apple’s sample code:

  • the initializer
  • lastHistoryToken variable
  • tokenFile variable
  • historyQueue variable

Also copy over the NSPersistentContainer extension in “CoreData+Convenience.swift.”

Also, my “processRemoteStoreChange” function is identical to the sample code’s “storeRemoteChange” function.

Step 5: Merge new changes into the context

I modified Apple’s “processPersistentHistory” function to look like this:

func processPersistentHistory() {
    let backgroundContext = persistentContainer.newBackgroundContext()
    backgroundContext.performAndWait {

        // Fetch history received from outside the app since the last token
        let historyFetchRequest = NSPersistentHistoryTransaction.fetchRequest!
        historyFetchRequest.predicate = NSPredicate(format: "author != %@", appTransactionAuthorName)
        let request = NSPersistentHistoryChangeRequest.fetchHistory(after: lastHistoryToken)
        request.fetchRequest = historyFetchRequest

        let result = (try? backgroundContext.execute(request)) as? NSPersistentHistoryResult
        guard let transactions = result?.result as? [NSPersistentHistoryTransaction],
            else { return }

        print("transactions = \(transactions)")
        self.mergeChanges(from: transactions)

        // Update the history token using the last transaction.
        lastHistoryToken = transactions.last!.token

The “mergeChanges” function looks like this:

private func mergeChanges(from transactions: [NSPersistentHistoryTransaction]) {
        context.perform {
            transactions.forEach { [weak self] transaction in
                guard let self = self, let userInfo = transaction.objectIDNotification().userInfo else { return }
                NSManagedObjectContext.mergeChanges(fromRemoteContextSave: userInfo, into: [self.context])

Most of that code was pulled from Stack Overflow. Apple’s code has a bunch of deduplication logic in it that frankly, I’m not emotionally ready to process, so I skipped it.

I’ve seen a few folks say that merging changes like this shouldn’t be necessary. However—and maybe it’s some sort of weird placebo effect—it seemed like changes from my watch synced much more quickly to my phone. Not instantaneous, but a handful of seconds instead of requiring me to sometimes force quit and restart the app (or switch tabs or something) to see changes.

Step 6: Never forget to deploy your updated schema from the CloudKit Dashboard

Honestly, it’s not that I forgot to do this, it’s that I failed to make sure it actually happened. CloudKit threw some weird error at me and told me my development and production schemas were the same, when they were in fact extremely different. I never double-checked, and chaos ensued! Don’t be like me: make sure your schema is deployed.

After launch, remember that you still have to do this every time you change your Core Data model, before you release your update to testers or the App Store. If your production CloudKit schema doesn’t properly correspond to your production Core Data model, syncing is going to break in all kinds of terrifying ways.


I know I probably could have saved myself a lot of frustration if I’d forked over some money for a Ray Wenderlich membership or some other paid tutorials/books related to Core Data. I’m also guessing there’s a much easier way to set everything up so that cloud changes are reflected near-instantaneously. But y’all, I’ve combed the free internet for weeks and this is the best I could come up with. Maybe it’ll help you too.